What Is The Pathophysiology Of Diabetes?

What is the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy?

The most common cause of vision loss in patients with DR is diabetic macular edema (DME).

DME is characterized by swelling or thickening of the macula due to sub- and intra-retinal accumulation of fluid in the macula triggered by the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) [1]..

Is type 2 diabetes curable?

There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well and exercising can help manage the disease. If diet and exercise aren’t enough to manage your blood sugar well, you may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

How are you diagnosed with type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed using the: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent, and a result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes.

What diseases can cause hyperglycemia?

Many factors can contribute to hyperglycemia, including:Not using enough insulin or oral diabetes medication.Not injecting insulin properly or using expired insulin.Not following your diabetes eating plan.Being inactive.Having an illness or infection.Using certain medications, such as steroids.More items…•

What is the pathophysiology of hypoglycemia?

Hypoglycemia is characterized by a reduction in plasma glucose concentration to a level that may induce symptoms or signs such as altered mental status and/or sympathetic nervous system stimulation. This condition typically arises from abnormalities in the mechanisms involved in glucose homeostasis.

What are the fundus changes of a diabetic?

Retinal findings in background diabetic retinopathy, including blot hemorrhages (long arrow), microaneurysms (short arrow), and hard exudates (arrowhead). Increased permeability of these vessels results in leakage of fluid and proteinaceous material, which clinically appears as retinal thickening and exudates.

What is the basic underlying pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes?

Pathology of type 2 diabetes In type 2 diabetes, the body either produces inadequate amounts of insulin to meet the demands of the body or insulin resistance has developed. Insulin resistance refers to when cells of the body such as the muscle, liver and fat cells fail to respond to insulin, even when levels are high.

What are the main differences in the pathophysiology of type I and type II diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. It occurs when the insulin-producing islet cells in the pancreas are completely destroyed, so the body can’t produce any insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the islet cells are still working. However, the body is resistant to insulin.

What is the difference between diabetes and diabetes mellitus?

The term diabetes is derived from Latin (originally Greek) and means “to go through or siphon,” referring to a large amount of urine produced by the kidneys. The term mellitus, in Latin, means “sweet.” Diabetes mellitus causes high blood glucose levels and glucose eventually spills into the urine.

What does pathophysiology mean?

Pathophysiology (consisting of the Greek origin words “pathos” = suffering; “physis” = nature, origin; and “logos” = “the study of”) refers to the study of abnormal changes in body functions that are the causes, consequences, or concomitants of disease processes.

What is the main cause of diabetes?

Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2 facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes.

What is the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes occurs when some or all of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed. This leaves the patient with little or no insulin. Without insulin, sugar accumulates in the bloodstream rather than entering the cells. As a result, the body cannot use this glucose for energy.

What is the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia results from a decrease in the body’s ability to utilize or store glucose after carbohydrates are ingested and from an increase in the production of glucose by the liver during the intervals between meals.

Can diabetes be cured?

Even though there’s no diabetes cure, diabetes can be treated and controlled, and some people may go into remission. To manage diabetes effectively, you need to do the following: Manage your blood sugar levels.

Which diabetes is hereditary?

Type 2 diabetes is associated with insulin resistance rather than the lack of insulin, as seen in type 1 diabetes. This often is obtained as a hereditary tendency from one’s parents. Insulin levels in these patients are usually normal or higher than average but the body’s cells are rather sluggish to respond to it.

What are the risks of high blood sugar?

Having too much sugar in the blood for long periods of time can cause serious health problems if it’s not treated. Hyperglycemia can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems.

What are the four stages of diabetic retinopathy?

The four stages of diabetic retinopathyStage 1: Mild nonproliferative retinopathy — microaneurysms. … Stage 2: Moderate nonproliferative retinopathy — blocked blood vessels. … Stage 3: Severe nonproliferative retinopathy — more blocked blood vessels & a call for help. … Stage 4: Proliferative retinopathy — blood vessels grow on the retina.More items…•

What do people with retinopathy see?

As the condition progresses, diabetic retinopathy symptoms may include: Spots or dark strings floating in your vision (floaters) Blurred vision. Fluctuating vision.